Educational Articles

Surgical Conditions

  • Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) is a genetic mutation affecting many breeds that causes developmental defects in the eye that can lead to vision deficits or blindness. This defect can be diagnosed by a veterinary ophthalmologist between 6 and 8 weeks of age by visualizing spots of choroidal hypoplasia or a colobomas . It can be associated with microphthalmia or enophthalmia. It can lead to retinal detachment and blindness. Although laser repair of partial retinal detachments can be attempted if detected in early stages, there is generally no treatment for CEA. Vision varies depending on the extent of the lesions and some dogs will become blind. Prevention requires not breeding animals that carry the mutation and this can be achieved through genetic testing of breeding dogs.

  • Turtles commonly suffer from vitamin A deficiency, respiratory diseases, abscesses, shell infections, shell fractures, and parasites. Vitamin A deficiency (hypovitaminosis A) occurs as a result of feeding turtles an inappropriate diet. Symptoms include a lack of appetite, lethargy, swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the ear, kidney failure, and respiratory infections. Respiratory tract infections are most often caused by bacteria. Abscesses are treated surgically and may also require antibiotics. Shell infections can be challenging to treat. Gastrointestinal parasites are treated with appropriate deworming medications. Seek immediate veterinary care if there is any deviation from normal in your aquatic turtle.

  • Turtles commonly suffer from vitamin A deficiency, respiratory diseases, abscesses, shell infections and fractures, and parasites. Vitamin A deficiency occurs as a result of feeding turtles an inappropriate diet. Symptoms include a lack of appetite, lethargy, swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the ear, kidney failure, and respiratory infections. Respiratory tract infections are most often caused by bacteria. Abscesses are treated surgically. Shell infections can be challenging to treat. Gastrointestinal parasites are treated with appropriate deworming medications. Seek immediate veterinary care if there is any deviation from normal in your pet turtle.

  • The traditional ECLS technique is the oldest surgical correction for cruciate ligament injury in dogs. The name of the procedure originates from the fact that the joint is stabilized outside the joint capsule (externally). CCL repair surgery typically consists of an initial examination of the inside of the knee. This examination may either be done by opening the joint capsule and looking inside or by using an arthroscope. Both the traditional ECLS and Tight Rope® procedures are considered extracapsular or external repairs of CCL injury. Both yield similar results with similarly low risks.

  • One of the most common injuries to the knee of dogs is tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). When the cranial cruciate ligament is torn, surgical stabilization of the knee joint is often required. A major advancement in the treatment of CCL rupture has been the development of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or TPLO. Healing from TPLO surgery is generally rapid with the dog resuming normal activities quickly.

  • One of the most common injuries to the knee of dogs is tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). Several surgical techniques are currently used to correct CCL rupture. The TTA procedure is more commonly performed in dogs with a steep tibial plateau, or angle of the top part of the tibia. Healing from TTA surgery is generally rapid and dogs resume normal activities quickly.

  • This handout outlines cruciate ligament rupture, an orthopedic condition, in cats. The common causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatments are described.

  • The cruciate ligaments are two bands of fibrous tissue located within each stifle joint. They join the femur and tibia together so that the knee works as a stable, hinged joint. The two most common causes of cranial cruciate rupture are trauma and degeneration of the ligaments within the joint. During the lameness examination, your veterinarian will try to demonstrate a particular movement, called a cranial or anterior drawer sign. There are various surgical techniques performed to stabilize the knee joint following cruciate rupture. Regardless of the technique used to stabilize the joint, arthritis is likely to develop in the joint as your dog ages.

  • This handout discusses the use of cryosurgery in pets. This technique involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissues. A short discussion in included as to how the technique is used, and in what circumstances it may be appropriate to use.

  • A cutaneous histiocytoma is a common benign (harmless) tumor of the skin in dogs, typically younger ones. Their development, appearance, diagnosis, and treatment are explained in this handout.